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Da postoji putovanje kroz vreme,
NAJRAĐE bih u epohu nemog filma

Nevena Joksimović, Nemanja Subotić, Alexander Ivanović

EDI-05, 09/2018

Zadatak[1] je bio da se o temi razmišlja na osnovu zajedničkih projekcija filmova: „THE ARTIST“ (Michel Hazanavicius, 2011), „THE ARRIVAL OF A TRAIN“ (Lumiere Brothers, 1896), „EMPLOYEES LEAVING THE LUMIERE FACTORY“ (Lumiere Brothers, 1896), „A TRIP TO THE MOON“ (Georges Melies, 1902), THE GREAT TRAIN ROBBERY (Edwin S. Porter, 1903), „THE KID“ (Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin, 1921), „INTOLERANCE (D. W. Griffith, 1916), „LA PASSION DE JEANNE D’ARC“ (Carl Theodor Dreyer, 1928), „THE CABINET OF DR: CALIGARI“ (Robert Wiene, 1920), „NOSFERATU, EINE SYMPHON IE DES GRAUENS“ (F. W. Murnau, 1922), „METROPOLIS“ (Fritz Lang, 1927). Ovo su najuspešniji studentski radovi.

 


Nevena Joksimović

PRODUCENTKINJA

Da postoji putovanje kroz vreme najrađe bih bila ili ne bih bila predstavnik nemog filma. Producent? Moranje izbora jedne strane podseća me na pitanje da li više volim tatu ili mamu (kao klinci stalno smo slušali ta pitanja, smarala su me…).

Stvar je u suštini – poređenje dve estetike. Idemo korak napred – dva umetnička doživljaja filma. Da, bila bih producent nemog filma. Možda ću ga jednog dana i proizvesti (produkcija = proizvodnja = kreativna proizvodnja). Zašto? Dovoljno mi je bilo da jednom pogledam film The Artist, a jedva čekam da ga vidim ponovo.

Mnogi slavne dane nemog flma nazivaju još i zlatnim dobom filma. Neshvatljivo za današnjeg čoveka, koji je navikao da gleda i da sluša. Ali, vizuelna strana je ta kojoj je istorija omogućila da se prva razvije. 1891. Edison je izumeo kinetoskop. Gleaocima su prikazivane fotografije koje se kreću. Međutim, želja za tonom stara je koliko i sam film, pa se izumima došlo do toga da se ton film pojavi 1926. Sinoć sam gledala Renoarov film “Nana” (1926) od 2 sata i 20 minuta. Ostavio je snažan utisak na mene. Nije mi ni jednog trena bilo dosadno zato što nisam mogla da ga čujem. Kakav kadar, kakvo preplitanje planova (opšti, pa detalj), kakva dubina prostora (umetničko stvaranje treće dimenzije), maestralna scenografija.

Bila bih producent nemog filma (evo vraćam se kroz vreme), kako bih sprečila krah nemog filma pojavom zvuka. Ja sam za utopiju. Ne podnosim pitanja ili-ili, ja sam za postojanja i-i.

Prvi zvučni film “Pevač džeza” pojavio se 1927. godine, doživeo veliki uspeh i filmu doneo novu dimenziju. Desilo se da je ton mnoge reditelje i glumce otrgao od filma (ovo sam ublažila – nisu se prilagodili novom). Jer, drugačija su izražajna sredstva jednog, a sasvim drugačija drugoga. Sada smo mogli ne samo da vidimo glumca, nego i da mu čujemo glas. Zvuk je bio usklađen pokretima njegovih (ili njenih) usta, koraci su odzvanjali, a kiša je jako (jače nego što uistinu mora) lupala o krovove. Publika je oduševljena, baš kao i onda kada su prvi put videli pokretne fotografije.

Ali, šta se desilo? “Novi” filmovi u tom prvom periodu izgubili su umetničku vrednost (neki, samo neki, prvi ton filmovi). Susreli su se producenti, glumci, snimatelji, montažeri sa nečim novim. Nije isto režirati ili montirati film bez i film sa tonom. Filmska scenarija više se nisu pisala isto, pojavio se dijalog. Pokretljivost kamere je smanjena. Mikrofon nije ravnomerno hvatao zvuk. U umetničkom smislu, bilo je to isto kao bojenje skulpture.

DA, bila bih producent tih ’20-ih i ’30-ih godina prethodnog veka, da uspostavim balans. Jer, slika bez tona može biti prava umetnost (pa, videli smo u scenama filma The Artist), ali, umetnost je i kad slici dodamo ton. Režirao je Renoar i “Nanu” i “Veliku iluziju” (1937). Zvuk i slika mogu kreativno i funkcionalno da se povežu i dopune. Uzajamno. Dodavanjem tona proširena je perceptivna sposobnost posmatrača.

Još mi je u glavi scena stepenica iz filma The Artist… Vratila bih slici bez tona oduzetu vrednost i pokazala da jedno ne isključuje drugo. Različitosti postoje. A ja, kao producent tih ’30-ih, sam i uspela!

Oko koje se naziva prozorom duše,
glavno je sredstvo kojim razum može najpotpunije i najbolje
da oceni bezbrojne tvorevine prirode.
(Leonardo da Vinči)

 


Nemanja Subotić

MONTAŽER

Nemi film predstavlja svaki vid filmskog snimka bez tonskog zapisa. Svakako, veći deo projekcije nemog filma bila je propraćena muzikom kojoj nije bio cilj da nadomesti dijalog ili atmosferski zvuk, već da doprinese na sasvim unikatan način.

U svemu tome film The Artist prikazuje realnu sliku propasti nemog filma usled pojave zvuka.

Umetnost nije umetnost, ako je svako razume. Vodeći se time, nakon pojave tona – iz mnogo (pa, čak i nikad nerazjašnjenih) razloga – kreatori nemih filmova imali su doživljaj da ih je „pregazilo vreme“. Trebalo je da ostane bez zvuka, a ne da se prilagođava aktuelnostima… U ovom slučaju, to je zaista bio mač sa dve oštrice, a i kobno po nemi film. Već od Žorža Melijesa, koji je manje-više uvideo skoro sve montažne postupke, poput: dvostruke ekspozicije, zatamnjenja, otamnjenja, overlepinga, maske, pretapanja…. Takođe, i po pitanju animacije, prvenstveno imajući na umu kolor-film…

Bez atmosferskog zvuka i drugih tonova, nemi film je prikazivao svoj pun potencijal smanjenim brojem frejmova (kvadrata, sličica) po sekundi, što stvara ubrzani snimak, koji nam je već po sebi komičan (samo da vidimo Čaplina koji šeta ulicom i pretura po džepovima). Nije u pitanju samo ta komičnost i kadrovi koji prouzrokuju smeh kod publike, već bez ijedne reči prikazana beda, glad, siromaštvo, što je teže realizovati u nemom filmu, pa se i publika više fokusira na samu sliku. Primer za to je da u mraku mnogo bolje čujemo, jer se „isključi“ čulo vida. Tako da, ukoliko bi postojala mogućnost da vratim vreme i da montiram neme filmove, rado bih to učinio, jer smatram da se po pitanju glume, ali ne i montaže, dostigao pun potencijal!

 


Alexander Ivanović

REDITELJ

If time travel were possible, I would love to make a silent film. In the early era of film making, movies were more universal and messages and stories could be easily understood globally. Regardless of nation or culture, a movie without dialogue could be received equally, no matter the audience. This gave filmmakers a huge possibility to spread their ideas and themes worldwide and help shape social norms and promote their unique creativity and style. No matter the origin of the viewer a silent film can be read clearly and fully comprehended. In my opinion this was a greater sharing of ideas and culture than in the early beginnings of sound in film because films risked being lost in translation. Dialogue between characters with translated text below always has the chance of not giving the same emotional impact as intended. Still, not all world languages can be translated exactly the same and this makes it harder for global audiences to all have the same experience while viewing.

In the silent film era, film makers had to be more creative and use original and inventive methods to achieve clear storytelling. Many films made today can be seen as directly influenced by the silent era. Without their creativity and style we wouldn’t have the basic foundation of storytelling through film today. Every aspect of production had to be thought out and planned or else the film risked being unclear. The directors had to use everything available to them to bring the film to life and make it entertaining. Sets and set design, especially in german expressionism, were very dynamic and interesting. After ‘the cabinet of Dr.Caligari’ and ‘Nosferatu’, the dream like and creepy sets provided an atmosphere like no film prior. It would also gave birth to many film noir genre films and horror films later. The sets were shaped and warped oddly to express a dream and set the films tone. Mostly everything on screen (sets, makeup, costumes) in german expressionism were highly elaborate and gave it its unique look and style that would influence future artists.
As well in the silent film era, editing was crucial, directors had to again invent and think of new interesting ways to tell a story as opposed to a simple linear timeline. In ‘the great train robbery’, the first use of parallel editing was used to tell the story and build emotion in the viewer. Like many other methods and styles out of the silent era, this was a huge change and impacted the traditional view of story structure. In ‘Metropolis’ a use of special effects and editing, groundbreaking for its time, raised the standard of grandeur and scenography for other filmmakers that followed.

Imagination and creativity were the fundamentals of what the silent era was created from. There was no room for lazy text or meaningless character actions. Clarity was paramount and only someone with a genuine interest or passion for storytelling could create and invent a new technique or method to take their art further. It was a time of experimentation, pushing the boundaries as far as the could go, given the limitations of technology. Of course, sound in film was the logical next step to the cinema industry, but as ‘the Artist’ showed, not necessarily better. It still depended vastly on the quality of the story and how clear and intriguing the messages were. Naturally, mass consumption will always lean towards the spectacle of new and innovative entertainment, but the integrity and passion felt while watching a silent film is something that is not so commonly found today.

The hard obstacles and efforts the artists had to deal with to realise an idea into a film, created a barrier of entry for anyone who wasn’t fully devoted to filmmaking. This raised the quality of films made and produced a high level of competition among production companies and independent directors. Of course, because of the second world war, hollywood was able to emerge as a world leader in cinema and set the standard for films and entertainment. But before their domination, film was a very new industry, with nations all competing and rivaling each other to produce quality cinema, and showcase their talents, culture and identity.

 


[1] Stilska vežba iz Istorije svetske kinematografije, realizovana u letnjem semestru školske 2017/18 godine na Akademiji umetnosti u Beogradu.